【转载】What are Cookies?

What are Cookies?

Cookies are small text files that are placed on your computer or mobile device when you visit a website.  Cookies contain information that can later be read by a web server in the domain that issued the Cookie.  Owners of a website can use Cookies for a variety of reasons that can include enabling their websites to work (or work more efficiently), providing personalized content and advertising, and creating website analytics.

Cookies are typically classified as either “session cookies” which are automatically deleted when you close your browser, or “persistent cookies” which will usually remain on your device until you delete them or they expire.  Cookies set by the website owner are called "first party cookies".  Only Website owner can access the first party cookies they set. Cookies set by parties other than the website owner are called "third party cookies". Third party cookies enable third party features or functionality to be provided on or through the website (e.g. like advertising, interactive content and social sharing). The parties that set these third party cookies can recognize your device both when it visits the website in question and also when it visits other websites that have partnered with them.

In addition to cookies, we may use other similar technologies like web beacons (sometimes called "tracking pixels" or "clear gifs") or local storage.  Web beacons are tiny graphics files that contain a unique identifier that enable us to recognize when someone has visited our Services or opened an e-mail that we have sent them.  This allows us, for example, to monitor the traffic patterns of users from one page within our Services to another, to deliver or communicate with cookies, to understand whether you have come to our Services from an online advertisement displayed on a third-party website, to improve site performance, and to measure the success of e-mail marketing campaigns.  Local storage enables a website or application to store information locally on your device(s) in order to enable certain functionality in our Services.  Local storage may be used to improve your experience with our Services, for example, by enabling features, remembering your preferences, and speeding up site functionality.

来源 https://www.notion.so/Cookie-Notice-bc186044eed5488a8387a9e94b14e58c

什么是web beacons
A web beacon is any of several techniques used to track who is visiting a web page. They can also be used to see if an email was read or forwarded or if a web page was copied to another website.

The first web beacons were small digital image files that were embedded in a web page or email. The image could be as small as a single pixel (a "tracking pixel") and could have the same colour as the background, or be completely transparent. When a user opens the page or email where such an image is embedded, they might not see the image, but their web browser or email reader automatically downloads the image, requiring the user's computer to send a request to the host company's server, where the source image is stored. This request provides identifying information about the computer, allowing the host to keep track of the user.

This basic technique has been developed further so that many types of elements can be used as beacons. Currently, these can include visible elements such as graphics, banners, or buttons, but also non-pictorial HTML elements such as the frame, style, script, input link, embed, object, etc., of an email or web page.

The identifying information provided by the user's computer typically includes its IP address, the time the request was made, the type of web browser or email reader that made the request, and the existence of cookies previously sent by the host server. The host server can store all of this information, and associate it with a session identifier or tracking token that uniquely marks the interaction.

网络信标(web beacon),又称网页臭虫(web bug),是可以暗藏在任何网页元素或邮件内的1像素大小的透明GIF或PNG图片,常用来收集目标电脑用户的上网习惯等数据,并将这些数据写入Cookie。网络信标在邮件跟踪和垃圾邮件中较为常用。


来源 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_beacon
参考 https://www.cookiepro.com/knowledge/what-is-a-web-beacon/
  
2022-3-18

[本日志由 liurw 于 2022-03-18 11:35 AM 更新]
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